THE BASQUES FROM THE 16th CENTURY UNTIL THE EARLY 21st CENTURY

Friday, 15 May, 2015 - 08:00

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THE BASQUES FROM THE 16th CENTURY UNTIL THE EARLY 21st CENTURY

The invasion of the Kingdom of Navarre by Castile and Aragon signified for the Basque territories a conjunctural change that did not halt the dynamic of its booming development, in contrast to what was to happen later under the French crown with what remained of the Kingdom of Navarre.

The footprints of our ancestors in the northeast of North America. Fresh evidence of the route along the St. Lawrence and northern shore of Lake Ontario which was used in the preliminary contacts with the ancestral Huron-Wendat settlements, between the 14th century and halfway through the 15th century. The route that may have been followed by the piece of iron, thought to be of Basque origin, in the hands of indigenous traders around 1500. Relationship with other First Nations: Mi'kmaq, Innu, Cree, Beothuk, Inuit.

The mysterious disappearance of the Iroquoians from the St. Lawrence before 1600, and the fate of the Basque whalers in Labrador, whose flourishing industry collapsed, are the great enigmas of the 16th century in Canada which lack any clear explanation.

Around 1600 was the high point in the witch hunt in Europe, and at the turn of the 17th century a remarkable episode erupted among the Basques in Lapurdi. The rumors about the diabolic sect had already spread to the borderlands, and the Spanish Inquisition in Logroño was on alert.

Basque superiority in naval construction and unprecedented capacity to innovate: the case of the San Juan of Pasaia of 1565. The whale oil brought back was used to light Europe. The uninterrupted tradition of Basque naval architecture provided tools to undertake far-reaching enterprises in the development of this people over many centuries. A period of more than half a millennium has meant for the Basques –and for their technological innovation and for their identity– having the capacity to contribute vital knowledge to the European west.

El País Vasco of Pío Baroja, le Pays Basque of Wilhelm von Humboldt, the Basque Country of Mark Kurlansky, or Euskal Herria of Joanes Leizarraga in the 16th century, share a historical thread through its language, its tradition, its men and women and its modernity.

"The great challenge facing smallness", looking at the world without forgetting one’s roots. The "Basque Case" –a case of socio-economic-political transformation– is currently being studied at many Universities across the world.

Milestones in prehistory with interesting conclusions for this group of early Homo sapiens sapiens who settled in the west of Europe and which today can be displayed, as an example, in the Basque peoples as a whole. The roots of the West of Europe, the repopulation of the Atlantic Façade from the Basque Refuge. Permanence of early genetic lineages. The Vasconic language substrate in the continent, its antiquity stretching back 40,000 years and the traces towards its origin via different points on the planet. The creation of cave art in the Refuge of the Upper Palaeolithic. The Solutrean Solution: origin of the population in Atlantic North America in the Pleistocene. The Atlantic maritime tradition between Europe and North America in the most recent glaciation. A fresh look towards the Magdalenian, magalithism. Appearance of the Celtic language in Atlantic Europe and relationship with Proto-Basque.

The history of everyday life down the centuries, the example of how we experienced the history that we have not written down and that we need to salvage. It should provide us with guidelines to get to the bottom of the past and incorporate tools used in other fields. We explore the Universe, we have available the means that we can apply to all the disciplines. Armed with knowledge about ourselves we can decipher the history with the help of science and technology, and we will be able to face a better future.

PROGRAMME

Friday 15 May 2015

Lauburu from Jauzarrea’s logo.

08:00:Handing out of documentation.

08:50:Opening of the Congress.

09:00:The sound of the deep-lands.

09:10hIntroduction.The ATLANTIAR project and the Leitmotiv of the Congress. Greeting our guests, researchers participating in the Congress and representatives of the First Nations of Northeastern North America: Stephen Augustine (Mi’kmaq), Alexandre Bacon (Innu) and Louis Lesage (Huron-Wendat).

Mantle herrixkaThe Mantle Site, at which a small piece of probable Basque iron was found, is an early 16th century ancestral Huron-Wendat village on the north shore of Lake Ontario just north of Toronto.

09:25:From Basque Iron to Ivory: Long Distance Exchange Systems of the North Shore of Lake Ontario Ancestral Huron-Wendat Dr. RONALD WILLIAMSON. Archaeologist. Anthropologist. Archaeological Services Inc. Toronto. Ontario. Canada.

Huron bat burdinazko aizkorarekin.The St Lawrence basin: Early Iroquoian territory, the territory of the Iroquois League and the Huronia, of the Huron-Wendat Confederacy
Huron with an iron axe. Photo © copyright yap films from the film “Curse of the Axe”.

10:05:“Privileged partners” or “killer people”? Basques and Iroquoians in the Saint Lawrence Basin, 1530-1650. Kanata. Dr. BRAD LOEWEN. Anthropologist. Department of Anthropology. University of Montreal. Quebec.

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10:35:Break. 30 minutes.

11:05:Basque Witchcraft and the Spanish Inquisition (16th and 17th centuries). Dr. phil. GUSTAV HENNINGSEN. Anthropologist. Former Research Director of Danish Folklore Archives. Royal Library of Copenhagen. Denmark.

Burning of three witches in Baden, Switzerland (1585), by Johann Jakob Wick).The decades around 1600 marked the culmination of the European witch craze. At the beginning of the 17th century a huge witch panic broke out among the Basques. It started in Pays de Labourd , but when judge Pierre de Lancre went there in 1609 with a royal commission to punish the witches, rumors about the diabolic sect had already spread to the borderlands, and the Inquisition of Logroño was on alert. On both sides of the Pyrenees preachers were thundering from their pulpits against the witches, admonishing them to turn themselves in. During a period of Grace hundreds of witchcraft confessions were obtained by the Inquisition, and when the term was over the Inquisition had thousands of names of supposed witches who had failed to present themselves.
Dernenburg. Harzen 1555. Graphisches Sammlung. Zentralbibliothek. Zürich.

11:40:Basque superiority in naval architecture and unprecedented capacity for innovation. The case of the San Juan whaler from Pasaia of 1565: the most honoured and celebrated boat in the whole history of naval archaeology. DR. ROBERT GRENIER. Archaeologist. Former Head of the Underwater Archaeology Unit. Parks Canada. UNESCO 2001 Commission. Ottawa. Canada.

San Juan euskal baleontziaren hondakinak, Red Bay-n (Labrador) 1565ean hondoratua.The wreck of the Basque whaler San Juan, sunk in Red Bay, Labrador, in 1565.
Baleontziaren sekzioa, upelen zamarekin, neurri handi batean Europa argitzeko erabiltzen zen balea-koipearekin.Interior section of the whaler laden with barrels, containing whale oil, to light Europe.
Balea Bizkaitarra edo Euskal Balea:<br />
			Eubalaena glacialis.A Right whale, Biscay whale or Basque whale: Eubalaena glacialis.

12:10:From the Kanata of the Iroquois until Gernika. Brief journey through four centuries of Basque history. IÑAKI EGAÑA. Historian. Aranzadi Sciences Society. Chairman of the Foundation for the Basque Memory. Donostia. Gipuzkoa. Basque Country.

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12:45:Global Society and Local Response. Dr. PhD. JUAN JOSE IBARRETXE. Economist. Former President of the Basque Government. Agirre Lehendakaria Center for Social and Political Studies. Laudio. Araba. Basque Country.

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13:15:Looking at the past. Facing the future. Identity, the richness of diversity. XABI OTERO. JAUZARREA fund for the study and dissemination of basque culture. Arraiotz. Navarre. Basque Country.

13:30:Break for lunch. One hour and a half.

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15:00:Milestones in prehistory suggesting interesting conclusions.
Roots of Western Europe, repopulation of the Atlantic Façade from the Basque Refuge. Permanence of early genetic lineages. Dr. STEPHEN OPPENHEIMER. Geneticist. Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology. University of Oxford. England.
The Vasconic language substrate in Europe. Dr. THEO VENNEMANN. Linguist. University Ludwig-Maximilian. Munich. Germany.
The ancestral language of Basque: more than 40,000 years ago in Europe. Dr. PETER BAKKER. Linguist. Anthropology, Archaeology and Linguistics. Aarhus University. Denmark.
Solutrean Solution: Origin of Pleistocene People in Eastern North America. Dr. BRUCE BRADLEY. Archaeologist. Experimental MA Programme. University of Exeter. England.
Atlantic Maritime Tradition linking Ice Age Europe to North America. Dr. DENNIS STANFORD. Anthropologist. Curator North American Archaeology. Director Paleoindian/Paleoecology Program. Dr. MARGARET JODRY. Anthropologist. Paleocultural Research Group. Smithsonian Institution. Washington. USA.
A new look across the magdalenian era and megalithism. Dr. LIONEL SIMS. Anthropologist. School of Law and Social Sciences. University of East London. England.
The emergence of the Celtic language in Atlantic Europe in later prehistory and its relationship with Proto Basque. Dr. JOHN KOCH. Linguist. Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies National Library of Wales. University of Wales. Wales.
The reassessment of Basque and Amerindian artefacts in the context of North America. Dr. LAURIER TURGEON. Anthropologist. Canada Research Chair in Ethnological Heritage. Director of the Research Laboratory for Anthropological Multimedia University of Laval. Quebec.
Oreina Urkian Kanata. The First Nations of Kanata and the Basques. Prof. Dr. STEPHEN AUGUSTINE. Hereditary chief Mi’kmaq Grand Council. Sigenigtog First Nation. Principal/Dean of the Unama’ki College. Cape Breton University. Sydney, Nova Scotia. Canada.

17:30:Break of half an hour.

18:00:Any questions and colloque.

19:30:Closing of the Congress. Bertsotan. JON MAIA. ALAIA MARTIN.

Scientific Organising Committee:

STEPHEN OPPENHEIMER. University of Oxford. England. RON WILLIAMSON.Archaeological Services Inc.Toronto.Ontario.Canada. JOHN KOCH. University of Wales.Wales. XABI OTERO. JAUZARREA fund for the study and dissemination of basque culture. Arraiotz. Navarre. Basque Country.

Simultaneous interpretation: Basque, Spanish, French, English.