FROM HUNTER-GATHERERS TO PRODUCING SOCIETIES
Following the Last Glacial Maximum just over 20,000 years ago, a milder climate ushered in new vegetation and animal life. Groups of Homo sapiens who had settled around the Bay of Biscay (the Basque Refuge in the Upper Palaeolithic) began to repopulate the Atlantic Façade and other areas of Europe between 15,000 and 11,000 years ago. They covered the littoral currently known as Brittany, Wales, Cornwall, Ireland, Scotland and England, territories joined at that time to the continent because the sea level at that time was lower than it is today.
The analysis of how the Environment impacts on human beings, its incidence on cognitive capacity, the characterization of attitudes in the individual and the group, which produces social, cultural and other behaviours, all this can provide us with clues to understand the survival of human groups, the descendants of those who settled 45,000 years ago in the Basque Refuge during the Upper Palaeolithic, and who continue to use their language which emerged at some remote stage in this period.
That hunter-gatherer society was gradually transformed. The need to implement techniques to avail itself of new resources with which to support the increasingly abundant groups of humans made the production of cereals and other crops, and animal husbandry more widespread. The observation and study of the phases of the moon and the sun led to more effective crop yields. In different parts of Atlantic Europe outstanding monuments were built and gave rise to the development of rituals adapted to the new needs.
About 7,000 years ago contacts with groups from the east increased and lead to an exchange and transfer of ideas and knowledge. Fascinating questions emerge about the relationship between the Celtic languages and the Basque speakers, the possible origin of the Celtic language in the Atlantic area and its spread towards the centre and west of Europe during the Chalcolithic-Bronze age.
Friday 17 May 2013.
09:00 09:20h: Handing out of documentation.
09:20 09:30h: Presentation and Opening of the Congress.
09:30 09:50h: KALAKAN.
Jamixel Bereau,Thierry Biscary, Xan Errotabehere.
09:50 10:00h: Introduction. The ATLANTIAR project.
Fund for the study and dissemination of Basque culture.
Arraiotz. Navarre. Basque Country.
10:00 10:45h: Climate evolution in the North Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum 26,000-21,000 years ago.
Receding of the ice and formation of the littoral on the European Atlantic Façade; the familiar map.
Prof. Dr RICHARD PELTIER.
Director: Centre for Global Change Science.
PI of the Polar Climate Stability Network.
Scientific Director of SciNet.
Department of Physics of the University of Toronto.
10:45 11:15h: Break.
Last Glacial Maximum. Younger Dryas. Today.
Migrations from the Basque Refuge along the littoral of the European Atlantic Façade, as inferred from genetics.
11:15 12:00h: Repopulation of the European Atlantic Façade from the Basque Refuge: End of Magdalenian up to the Roman Empire.
Dr. STEPHEN OPPENHEIMER.
Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology.
School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography.
University of Oxford. Oxford, UK
12:00 12:45h: Something for Nothing:
the transition to modern human cognition. Professor MARK PAGEL.
Statistical Methods for Comparative Studies.
Head of the Evolution Laboratory.
Molecular Evolution and Adaptation.
Cultural and linguistic evolution.
Evolutionary Theory and Behavioural Ecology.
University of Reading. Reading, UK
12:45 13:30h: From hunter-gatherers to farmers and stockbreeders. Observation of the moon and solar cycles on the Atlantic Façade of Europe.
The solarization of the moon.
Dr. LIONEL SIMS. Anthropologist.
School of Law and Social Sciences (LSS).
University of East London. England.
13:30 14:30h: Break.
14:30 15:00h: Neurobiology of Language Production. Evolutionary Perspectives and Examples in Basque Language.
PhD. KEPA PAZ-ALONSO.
BCBL. Basque Center on Cognition,
Brain and Language.
Donostia. Gipuzkoa. Basque Country.
15:00 15:20h: Early evidence of Neolithization and consolidation of the producing economy around the Bay of Biscay.
Dr. JOSE ANTONIO MUJIKA.
University of the Basque Country. UPV/EHU.
Gasteiz Campus. Araba. Basque Country.
15:20 15:40h: The Iron Age in the territory of the Vascones and its neighbours.
Dr. XABIER PEÑALVER.
Aranzadi Society of Sciences.
Donostia. Gipuzkoa. Basque Country.
The Axtroki bowls (Hallstatt period), and glass bracelet (reconstruction), from Basagain.
15:40 16:10h: Languages of hunter-gatherers: do they have special traits?. Language and communication; contact and transfer.
Prof. Dr. PETER BAKKER. Linguistics.
University of Aarhus. Denmark.
16:10 16:30h: The oral tradition in the behaviour of human groups.
Prof. Dr. STEPHEN AUGUSTINE.
Hereditary chief Mi’kmaq Grand Council.
Sigenigtog First Nation.
Principal/Dean of the Unama’ki College.
Cape Breton University. Sydney, Nova Scotia. Canada.
16:30 16:50h: The Basque isle. Mountains and Basque Civilization.
Dr. CLAUDE DENDALETXE.
Former Director of the Centre of Experimental Biology of The High Mountain - c.b.e.a. University of Pau. uppa.
Kanbo. Lapurdi. Basque Country.
16:50 17:30h: Basque contacts with Scandinavia in the 11–13th centuries?
On the unidentified language of some Danish runic inscriptions.
Prof. Dr. STIG ELIASSON.
Linguist specialist in Scandinavian languages. Program of Northern European and Baltic Languages and Cultures. Department of English and Linguistics.
Johannes Gutenberg University. Mainz. Germany.
17:30 18:00h: Break.
18:00 19:45h: Roundtable discussion.
19:45 20:00h: Closing Session: Otsagiko dantzak.
Scientific Organising Committee:
STEPHEN OPPENHEIMER. University of Oxford. England.
RICHARD PELTIER. University of Toronto. Ontario. Canada.
STEPHEN AUGUSTINE. Cape Breton University. Nova Scotia. Canada.
XABI OTERO. Jauzarrea fund for Basque Studies. Arraiotz. Navarre. Basque Country.
Simultaneous interpretation: Basque, Spanish, French, English